Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals. Cloning of plants started hundreds or even thousands of years ago. However, cloning of animals started in the 1950’s but successful human cloning is yet to happen.
The first ever artificial embryo twinning was demonstrated in 1885. However, the first nuclear transferthat was successful was of a frog and took place in 1952. By the early 1980’s, embryonic cell techniques became more popular in cloning laboratory animals including livestock and mice. In 1975, scientists created the first mammalian embryo of a rabbit by nuclear transfer. Later in 1984, researchers created the first mammal by nuclear transfer (sheep). In 1987, scientists proved that even cows could be cloned.
By the late 1990’s, scientists had now developed cloning methods which used adult animal cells. However, the birth of the sheep named Dolly, in 1997 symbolized a major breakthrough in science and technology.